Statistics on Mental Illness & the Insanity Defense
PREVALENCE IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
· Insanity defense used in less than 1% of felony cases, and only successful in even lesser of a percentage.
· Rate of mental health in prisons: 2006 report by the Department of Justice reported that 15 percent of inmates of state prisons were psychotic.
Rate of mental illness in jails: 24 percent of jail inmates had symptoms of a psychotic disorder. 
jails in Maryland and New York in 2002-2006, 16.7 percent of jail inmates exhibited symptoms of serious mental illness (schizophrenia, schizoaffective,
bipolar, major depression, brief psychotic disorder) within the previous month.
“Thus, the total number of prison and jail inmates who were seriously mentally ill in 2012 would total approximately 356,000 inmates. This is equivalent to the population of cities such as Anchorage, Alaska; Montgomery, Alabama; Peoria, Illinois; or Trenton, New Jersey.”
· one in five prisoners were seriously mentally ill
· 7.2 percent of jail inmates appeared to have a serious mental illness
· “On any given day, at least 284,000 schizophrenic and manic depressive individuals are incarcerated, and 547,800 are on probation”
· "Approximately a quarter million individuals with severe mental illnesses are incarcerated at any given moment ..."
· " number of people under correctional supervision in the USA recently reached an all-time high of 7.3 million"
· "a meta-analysis of 62 studies suggests that 14% of offenders suffer from a major mental illness. If so, then there are over one million individuals with mental illness in the USA in jail, in prison, on probation, or on parole."
· Prisons and jails “well over 350,000 inmates with serious mental illness compared to approximately 70,000 patients with serious mental illness in hospitals.” 
· "up to 20 percent of those incarcerated meet diagnostic criteria for a serious mental disorder, with about 5 percent having psychotic disorders”
· “6.7% of prisoners had experienced symptoms of schizophrenia at some point in their lives.”
· “Canada...DSM-III-R criteria found a 7.7% prevalence of psychotic disorders in a sample of 9,801 inmates”
· "Great Britain found a tenfold higher prevalence of psychotic disorders among prisoners”
PREVALENCE IN GENERAL POP
· 450 million people world wide suffer from mental or behavioural disorders.
· in any given year one quarter of adults living in the United States are diagnosable for one or more mental disorders.”
· Serious mental illness: 6% of adults (1 in 17) in the United States.
· 1% of globe and US have schizophrenia
PRAVELENCE IN HOSPITALS
· Deinstiutionalization: "from 1955 to 1980, the number of persons institutionalized in mental health facilities declined by 75%." 
· “1950 to 2000… the proportion of people with SPMI living in psychiatric institutions dropped by 23%, whereas the proportion living in correctional institutions rose only 4%. The rise in incarceration rates for those with SPMI follows a predictable pattern, remaining at 1% from 1950 to 1970, but rising to 3% by 1990 and 5% by 2000.”
· “in 1960, about 563,000 beds were available in U.S. state and county psychiatric hospitals (314 beds per 100,000 persons), with about 535,400 resident patients. By 1990, the number of beds declined to about 98,800 (40 per 100,000) and the number of residents to 92,059”
· “an overall increase (from 8 percent to 11 percent) in the percentage of prison inmates with prior mental hospitalization between 1968 and 1978”
· 86% of insanity pleas occur in nonviolent crimes
· less than one third of the successful pleas were homicide related offenses
· NGRI acquittees spend almost double the amount of time in confinement (in hospital rather than prison)
· "In an eight-state study involving nearly 9,000 defendants who pleaded NGRI... found an acquittal rate of 25%."
· “acquittal rates of 20% to 25%” 
· “10% of insanity acquittals were in relation to misdemeanors.”
· 80% [of successful insanity defenses] “were uncontested by the prosecutor and disposed of informally without trial.” 
· Cost of treating serious mentally ill in prison as opposed to hospital: “individuals cost the taxpayers twice as much as individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder who were not involved in the criminal justice system.”
· Prison rule violations: “mentally ill jail inmates were twice as likely (19 percent versus 9 percent) to be charged with facility rule violations…. Washington State prisons, mentally ill inmates accounted for 41 percent of infractions, although they constituted only 19 percent of the prison population. In a county jail in Virginia, 90 percent of assaults on deputies were committed by mentally ill inmates.
· Suicides in prison: “A study of 132 suicide attempters in the King County, Washington, jail system reported that 77 percent of them had a ‘chronic psychiatric problem’ ” In Cali, of 154 suicides, “73 percent had a history of mental health treatment.” 
· “only about half of all inmates with mental illness receive treatment”
· Of those prisoners who have a mental illness in prison, only 1/3 get any treatment.
· Recidivism & hospitalization: LA County Jail 88 percent of the mentally ill inmates had had a previous psychiatric hospitalization, and 95 percent had had a previous arrest.
· one in five re-arrest within 18 months of jail diversion program starting
· GENERAL RECIDIVISM not related to MI….55% of all felony offenders in the study were not convicted of a subsequent offense during three years following their initial arrest and finding that homicide offenders had one of the lowest recidivism rates
· “nearly three out of every four jail detainees with a serious mental illness have a co-occurring substance abuse disorder”
· “about one-half to three-fourths of persons who had an alcohol, or other substance-related disorder throughout their lifetimes had at least one other mental disorder”
· “one-third of homeless persons meet diagnostic criteria for a major mental illness”
CAUSE OF OFFENSES
· probability that mental illness caused the offense. Direct and indirect effects were defined as the influence of delusions or hallucinations, or any other symptom (e.g., confusion, depression, irritability etc.),. …8% had been arrested for offenses that their psychiatric symptoms probably-to-definitely caused, either directly (4%) or indirectly (4%). 
CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
· “psychotic disorders are arrested more frequently”
· "mentally ill suspects are about 20 percent more likely to be arrested than their counterparts”.
· 70% of all people under the control of the criminal justice system are “supervised in the community on probation or parole”
TYPE OF CRIME
· “schizophrenia are arrested for minor crimes, such as disturbing the peace and public intoxication”
· "used primarily in murder cases... one third of successful insanity pleas."
· Among patients with schizophrenia, there was a “74% medication discontinuation rate”
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